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Bovine Rhinoviruses: A Brief Introduction

Nick Knowles

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.

Posted 23 February 2003; revised 2 March 2003; revised 23 February 2008

Serotypes

Bovine rhinoviruses (BRVs) were first isolated in Germany by Bogel and Bohm (1962) (Table 1). Further isolations of antigenically related viruses followed in Germany (Mayr et al., 1965; Wizigmann and Schiefer, 1966), the United States (Mohanty and Lillie, 1968), England (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969), Japan (Shimizu et al., 1973; Kurogi et al., 1974), Italy (Persechi, 1974) and the Sudan (Eisa, 1980) (Table 1). An antigenically distinct BRV was isolated circa1964 by Reed et al. (1971) and designated type 2 (Mohanty, 1973; Kurogi et al., 1975)(now renamed bovine rhinitis B virus). More recently a BRV isolated in Japan has been proposed as BRV type 3 (Yamashita et al., 1985). Four BRVs isolated in the United States were not compared with other BRVs (Rosenquist, 1971). No cross reactions have been detected between BRV type 1 (RS 3x) and FMDV by VN (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969), between BRV types 1 (RS 3x) and 2 (EC11) and FMDV by complement fixation (CF; N.J. Knowles, unpublished data), or between BRV type 1 and BEV types 1 and 2 by VN (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969), or between BRV types 1 and 2 and BEV types 1 and 2 by CF (N.J. Knowles, unpublished data). No cross reactions were detected between BRVs and antisera to bovine enteroviruses in an indirect sandwich ELISA (Höfner et al., 1993).

Table 1. Bovine rhinoviruses (BRV)
Type Strain Geographic origin

Year

Source Reference
BRV-1 Sd-1 Germany     Bogel and Bohm, 1962
  181/V Germany     Wizigmann and Schiefer, 1966
  C-07 Maryland, USA   Nasal swab Mohanty and Lillie, 1968
  RS 3x England   Nasal swab Ide and Darbyshire, 1969
  M-17 Japan

1972

Nasal swab Kurogi et al., 1974
  Chitose Japan

1972

Nasal swab Shimizu et al., 1974
    Italy     Persechi, 1974
  VC-96       ?
  FS1-43 Iowa, USA c.1980   Lupton et al., 1980
    Sudan c.1980 Nasal secretions Eisa, 1980
BRV-2 EC 11 England

c.1964

Lungs Reed et al., 1971
BRV-3 H-1 Japan

c.1984

Nasal swab Yamashita et al., 1985

Physico-chemical properties

The viruses are rapidly inactivated at acid and alkaline pH, are inactivated at 50 °C and generally not stabilized by 1M MgCl2 although apparently some strains are stabilized (e.g. C-07). Haemagglutination has been looked for but not demonstrated (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969).

Disease

Bovine rhinoviruses have been isolated from the upper respiratory tract of cattle with acute respiratory disease and from nasal swabs taken from healthy animals. Their role in disease is uncertain and experimental infections have sometimes produced sub-clinical infection or mild respiratory disease (Mohanty et al., 1969; Betts et al., 1971; Ide and Darbyshire, 1972c). Antibody surveys would suggest these viruses are widespread in domesticated cattle populations.

Growth in cell cultures

They appear only to grow in cell cultures of bovine origin (e.g. calf thyroid or calf kidney) and titres are higher at 33 °C than at 37 °C. CPE is evident, however, viral titres are usually very low.

Relationship to human rhinoviruses

Specific cDNA and oligonucleotide probes have been used in hybridization assays to group human rhino- and enteroviruses. These also appeared to react with BRV type 1 (Sd-1) and type 2 (EC-11) (Al-Nakib et al., 1986). However, newly available nucleotide sequence data has shown that BRVs are not members of the genus Rhinovirus (see below).

Molecular sequence data

In 2005, partial genome sequence data was presented at EURPOIC 2005 suggesting all three BRV serotypes were most closely related to the aphthoviruses (Knowles, 2005). Subsequently the (nearly) complete genome of BRV-2 was presented at EUROPIC 2006 (Hollister et al.,, 2006) confirming the earlier finding. From the partial genome sequence data it was suggested that BRVs could be divided into two species, one consisting of two serotypes, BRV-1 and BRV-3, and the second consisting of BRV-2. These are both distinct from the two existing Aphthovirus species, Foot-and-mouth disease virus and Equine rhinitis A virus. The taxonomic position of all three BRVs is currently under review by the ICTV Picornaviridae Study Group.

References (including additional references)

Al-Nakib, W., Stanway, G., Forsyth, M., Hughes, P.J., Almond, J.W. and Tyrrell, D.A.J. (1986). Detection of human rhinoviruses and their molecular relationship using cDNA probes. J. Med. Virol. 20: 289-296.

Betts, A.O., Edington, N., Jennings, A.R. and Reed, S.E. (1971). Studies on a rhinovirus (EC11) derived from a calf. II. Disease in calves. J. Comp. Pathol. 81: 41-48.

Bögel, K. and Böhm, H. (1962). Ein rhinovirus des rindes. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. A 187: 2-14.

Cummins, J.M. and Rosenquist, B.D. (1980). Protection of calves against rhinovirus infection by nasal secretion interferon induced by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41: 161-165.

Eisa, M. (1980). Isolation of a rhinovirus of bovine origin in the Sudan. Vet. Rec. 106: 225-227.

Höfner, M.C., Carpenter, W.C., Lyons, S.A., Hamblin, C. (1993). An indirect sandwich ELISA for the identification of bovine enteroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 41: 239-243.

Hollister, J.R., Vagnozzi, A., Knowles, N.J. and Rieder, E. (2006). Molecular analysis of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows a close relationship to the aphthoviruses. Northern Lights EUROPIC 2006: XIV Meeting of the European Study Group on the Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses, Saariselkä, Inari, Finland, 26th November-1st December 2006. Abstract A5.

Hollister, J., Vagnozzi, A., Knowles, N.J. and Rieder, E. (2008). Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 show it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology 373: 411-425. doi 10.1016/j.virol.2007.12.019.

Hussain, A. and Mohanty, S.B. (1979). Cell mediated immunity to bovine rhinovirus type 1 in calves. Arch. Virol. 59: 17-24.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1969). Rhinoviruses of bovine origin. Br. Vet. J.125: 7-8.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1972a). Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. I. Growth in vitro of strain RS 3x. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.36: 166-176.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1972b). Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. II. Some physical and chemical properties of strain RS 3x. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.36: 177-188.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1972c). Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. III. The pathogenesis and pathology of infection with strain RS 3x in calves. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.36: 335-342.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1972d). Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. IV. Neutralizing activity against strain RS 3x in bovine sera. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.36: 343-350.

Ide, P.R. and Darbyshire, J.H. (1972e). Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. V. Serological relationships between the RS3x and other bovine rhinovirus strains. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.37: 243-252.

Knowles, N.J. (2005). Molecular identification of all three bovine rhinovirus serotypes as members of the genus Aphthovirus. EUROPIC 2005: XIIIth Meeting of the European Study Group on the Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 23-29th May 2005. Abstract A18.

Kurogi, H., Inaba, Y., Goto, Y., Takahashi, A. and Sato, K. (1974). Isolation of rhinovirus from cattle in outbreaks of acute respiratory disease. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.44: 215-226.

Kurogi, H., Inaba, Y., Takahashi, E., Sato, K. and Goto, Y. (1975). Serological differentiation of bovine rhinoviruses. Natl. Inst. Anim. Health. Q. (Tokyo) 15: 201-202.

Lupton, H.W., Smith, M.H. and Frey, M.L. (1980). Identification and characterization of a bovine rhinovirus isolated from Iowa cattle with acute respiratory tract disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41: 1029-1034.

MacLachlan, N.J. and Rosenquist, B.D. (1982). Duration of protection of calves against rhinovirus challenge exposure by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-induced interferon in nasal secretions. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43: 289-293.

Mayr, A., Wizigmann, G., Wizigmann, I. and Schleisser, T. (1965). Untersuchungen über infektiöse kälbererkrankungen während der neugeborenen-phase. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. B 12: 1-12.

Mohanty, S.B. (1973). New herpesvirus and rhinoviral respiratory infections. J.A.V.M.A. 163: 855-857.

Mohanty, S.B. and Lillie, M.G. (1968). Isolation of a bovine rhinovirus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 850-852.

Mohanty, S.B., Mohanty, A.H., Lillie, M.G., Albert, T.F. and Sass, B. (1969). Experimental exposure of calves to a bovine rhinovirus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 30: 1105-1111.

Persechi, A., (1974). Isolation and characterization of rhinoviruses from calves. Acta Med. Vet. 20: 333-358.

Reed, S.E, and Boyde, A. (1972). Organ cultures of respiratory epithelium infected with rhinovirus or parainfluenza virus studied in a scanning electron microscope. Infect. Immun. 6: 68-76.

Reed, S.E., Tyrrell, D.A., Betts, A.O. and Watt, R.G. (1971). Studies on a rhinovirus (EC11) derived from a calf. I. Isolation in calf tracheal organ cultures and characterization of the virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 81: 33-40.

Rosenquist, B.D. (1971). Rhinoviruses: isolation from cattle with acute respiratory disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. 32: 685-688.

Rosenquist, B.D. and Allen, G.K. (1990). Effect of bovine fibroblast interferon on rhinovirus infection in calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 51: 870-873.

Shimizu, Y., Narita, M. and Murase, N. (1974). Isolation of bovine rhinovirus from calves with respiratory disease. Natl. Inst. Anim. Health. Q. (Tokyo) 14: 35-41.

Stott, E.J., Thomas, L.H., Collins, A.P., Crouch, S., Jebbett, J., Smith, G.S., Luther, P.D. and Caswell, R. (1980). A survey of virus infections of the respiratory tract of cattle and their association with disease. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 85: 257-270.

Wizigmann, G. (1974). [Epidemiology and etiology of bovine influenza. I. Occurrence and distribution of bovine adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses, and parainfluenza 3 virus] Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 21: 563-579.

Wizigmann, G. (1974). [Epidemiology and etiology of bovine influenza. II. Association of bovine adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses and parainfluenza 3 virus with bovine enzootic bronchopneumonia] Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 21: 580-591.

Wizigmann, G. and Schiefer, B. (1966). Isolierung von rhinoviren bei kälbern und undersuchungen über die bedeutung dieser viren für die entstehung von kälbererkrankungen. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. B 13: 37-50.

Yamashita, H., Akashi, H. and Inaba, Y. (1985). Isolation of a new serotype of bovine rhinovirus from cattle. Arch. Virol. 83: 113-116.

 

 

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