Child level

Sapelovirus A
Sapelovirus B
Ca. sea lion sapelovirus
Murine sapelovirus

Same level

Unassigned Ensavirinae
  The genus Sapelovirus consists of two species, Sapelovirus A (formerly named Porcine sapelovirus) and Sapelovirus B (formerly named Simian sapelovirus). A third species (Avian sapelovirus) has been renamed Anativirus A and moved to a new genus Anativirus).

The name Sapelovirus was orginally derived from Simian, Avian and Porcine Entero-Like viruses; however, since avian sapelovirus has moved, it could be described as being derived from Simian And Porcine Entero-Like viruses.

The two sapelovirus species may be distinguished by i) different host species; and ii) sequence diversity. For example in the VP1 gene there is less than 50% amino acid identity between the species. The simian sapeloviruses (which probably belong to three [sero]types) have probably undergone some complicated recombination events as can be seen from a comparison of sequences in different genome regions.

In 2011, two new sapeloviruses were discovered in California sea lions and tentatively named California sea lion sapelovirus 1 and 2 (Li et al., 2011).

A partial sequence of a murine sapelovirus has recently been reported (Phan et al., unpublished).

Genome organisation:

Porcine sapelovirus & simian sapelovirus:



Hellen, C.U. and de Breyne, S. (2007). A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination. J. Virol. 81: 5850-5863.

Kaku, Y., Sarai, A. and Murakami, Y. (2001). Genetic reclassification of porcine enteroviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 82: 417-424.

Krumbholz, A., Dauber, M., Henke, A., Birch-Hirschfeld, E., Knowles, N.J., Stelzner, A. and Zell, R. (2002). Sequencing of porcine enterovirus groups II and III reveals unique features of both virus groups. J. Virol. 76: 5813-5821.

Li, L., Shan, T., Wang, C., Côté, C., Kolman, J., Onions, D., Gulland, F.M.D. and Delwart, E. (2011). The fecal viral flora of California sea lions. JVI Accepts, published online ahead of print on 27 July 2011; doi:10.1128/JVI.05026-11.

Oberste, M.S., Maher, K. and Pallansch, M.A. (2003). Genomic evidence that simian virus 2 and six other simian picornaviruses represent a new genus in Picornaviridae. Virology 314: 283-293.