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  Genus: Cardiovirus

Species: Cardiovirus A

Type: encephalomyocarditis virus 1 (EMCV-1)
5' UTR L VP4 VP2 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: encephalomyocarditis virus 2 (EMCV-2)  
5' UTR L VP4 VP2 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: encephalomyocarditis virus 3 (EMCV-3)  
5' UTR L VP4 VP2 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: encephalomyocarditis virus 4 (EMCV-4)  
5' UTR L VP4 VP2 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR

(White areas indicate genes which haven't yet been sequenced; grey areas are where only partial sequences exist)

references

Virus Strain Region Length Accession No. Reference Comments

Encephalomyocarditis virus 1 (EMCV-1)

AUSTRALIA
EMCV-1 bov/75114 2B(p)+2C(p) 380 JQ217415 Diallo et al., 2013  
EMCV-1 pig/7-BSL 2B(p)+2C(p) 374 JQ217416 Diallo et al., 2013  
EMCV-1 pig/N3223 2B(p)+2C(p) 358 JQ217417 Diallo et al., 2013  
             
BELGIUM
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-2887A/91 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 480 Y14456 Koenen et al., 1997  
3D(p) 230 AJ235700 Koenen et al., 1999  
CG 7730 AF356822 Kassimi et al., 2002  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-279/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 223 AJ235680 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235701 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR(p) 360 AJ617368 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2709 AJ617361 Denis et al., 2006  
P1 2502 DQ835184 Hammoumi et al., 2012  
3'UTR 123 AJ617374 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-357/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235702 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 rat/BEL-359/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235703 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-371/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 214 AJ235681 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235704 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-440/95 5'UTR(p) 360 AJ617367 Denis et al., 2006
L+P1 2703 AJ617360 Denis et al., 2006  
3'UTR 123 AJ617373 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-475/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235705 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-740/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235706 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-810/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 213 AJ235682 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235707 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-2062/96 3D(p) 230 AJ235709 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-2105/96 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 218 AJ235683 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235710 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/BEL-2106/96 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 236 AJ235684 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235711 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 rat/BEL-1086C CG 7340 DQ835185 Guy et al., 2009 part of 5' UTR missing
             
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
EMCV-1 gerbil/AnrB-3741/CAR/1983 CG(p) 7548 KU955338 Berthet et al., unpub. s-frag missing
             
CHINA
EMCV-1 pig/BJC3 (Beijing) CG 7746 DQ464062 Zhang et al., 2007 6th passage in BHK-21 cells
EMCV-1 pig/HB1 (Hebei Province) CG 7735 DQ464063 Zhang et al., 2007 6th passage in BHK-21 cells
EMCV-1 pig/Hebei/2010/2 5' UTR 727 KC757343 Zhang, unpub. aborted foetus
EMCV-1 GX0601 CG 7729 FJ604852 Zhao et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 GX0602 CG 7725 FJ604853 Zhao et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/TJ 2C 978 EU371993 Song et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/GXLC (Guangxi, May-2008) CG 7725 FJ897755 Shi et al., 2010  
EMCV-1 pig/NJ08 (Jun-2008) CG 7724 HM641897 Bai et al., 2012  
EMCV-1 pig/HB10 (Nov-2010) pp-coding 6879 JQ864080 Lin et al., 2012  
EMCV-1 pig/BD2 pp-coding 6879 KC762214 Yuan et al., 2014  
CG 7741 KF709977 Yuan et al., 2013  
EMCV-1 pig/JZ0501/China/2012 VP1 831 KC110082 Chang et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 domesticated wild boar/JZ0502/China/2012 VP1 831 KC110083 Chang et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 mouse/JZ0503/China/2012 VP1 831 KC110084 Chang et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 tiger/FJ13/China/2013 CG 7739 KF293299 Liu et al., 2013a,b  
EMCV-1 pig/XX1/China/2012 pp-coding 6849 KF598860 Yan et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/XX2/China/2012 pp-coding 6863 KF598861 Yan et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/XX3/China/2012 pp-coding 6863 KF598862 Yan et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/JX/China/2012 pp-coding 6849 KF598863 Yan et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/ZM/China/2012 pp-coding 6861 KF598864 Yan et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 aardvark/HNXX13/China/2013 CG 7725 KF771002 Chang et al., 2014  
EMCV-1 pig/HNJZ1201/China/2012 CG 7735 KF836386 Liu et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 domesticated boar/JZ1202/China/2012 CG 7735 KF836387 Liu et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 mouse/JZ1203/China/2012 CG 7725 KF836388 Liu et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 pig/YM13/China/2013 CG 7729 KF836389 Liu et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 pig/YY13/China/2013 CG 7724 KF836390 Liu et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 pig/GS01/Gansu/China/2013 CG 7717 KJ524643 Feng et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 dog/C15/China/2015 CG(p) 6879 KU664327 Luo et al., 2017  
EMCV-1 pig/HLJ/China/2016 CG 7734 MH191297 Liu & Li, unpub.  
             
CYPRUS
EMCV-1 pig/CYP-003/94 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 208 AJ235687 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235731 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/CYP-108/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235730 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR(p) 360 AJ617366 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2703 AJ617359 Denis et al., 2006  
3'UTR 123 AJ617372 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/CYP-129/96 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 220 AJ235688 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235729 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 mouse/CYP-138/96 (Apodemus sp.) 3D(p) 230 AJ235728 Koenen et al., 1999  
             
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO
EMCV-1 bonobo/SPU 64/03 (Pan paniscus) 3D(p) 273 GU181317 Jones et al., 2011  
             
FRANCE
EMCV-1 pig/FRA-919/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 249 AJ235686 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235708 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 elephant/FRA/SIG/1/2013 CG 7875 MT250508 Romey et al., 2020 Loxodonta africana
EMCV-1 rat/FRA/SIG/1/2014 CG 7870 MT250509 Romey et al., 2020 Rattus rattus
EMCV-1 rat/FRA/SIG/2/2014 CG 7875 MT250510 Romey et al., 2020 Rattus rattus
EMCV-1 rat/FRA/SIG/3/2014 CG 7874 MT250511 Romey et al., 2020 Rattus rattus
             
GREECE
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-432/86 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 249 AJ235689 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235714 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-042/87 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 241 AJ235690 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235722 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-538/87 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 249 AJ235691 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235713 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-544/88 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 243 AJ235692 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235712 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-001/89 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 251 AJ131434 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235727 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-093/89 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 243 AJ235693 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235721 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-424/90 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 275 Y14458 Koenen et al., 1997  
3D(p) 230 AJ235715 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR(p) 360 AJ617369 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2703 AJ617362 Denis et al., 2006  
3'UTR 123 AJ617375 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-317/91 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 247 AJ235694 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235716 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-003/92 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 243 AJ235695 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235725 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-021/92 3D(p) 230 AJ235724 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-211/92 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 225 AJ131435 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235717 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-027/94 3D(p) 230 AJ235723 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-175/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 224 AJ235696 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235720 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-180/95 3D(p) 230 AJ235719 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 rat/GRE-181/95 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 225 AJ235697 Knowles et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 230 AJ235718 Koenen et al., 1999  
EMCV-1 pig/GRE-001/97 3D(p) 230 AJ235726 Koenen et al., 1999  
             
ITALY
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-135/86 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 495 Y14457 Koenen et al., 1997  
3D(p) 230 AJ235733 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR 360 AJ617365 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2703 AJ617358 Denis et al., 2006  
3'UTR 123 AJ617371 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-71c/88 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 203 AJ006857 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-002/88 VP3(p)/VP1(p) 284 AJ006860 Knowles et al., 1998  
3D(p) 230 AJ235732 Koenen et al., 1999
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-250/88 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 279 AJ006858 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-276/88 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 252 AJ006859 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 dormouse/ITL-276/90 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 212 AJ006861 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 dormouse/ITL-292/90 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 277 AJ006862 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 red squirrel/ITL-001/92 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 321 AJ006863 Knowles et al., 1998  
EMCV-1 pig/ITL-001/96 VP3(p)+VP1(p) 214 AJ006864 Knowles et al., 1998  
3D(p) 230 AJ235734 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR 360 AJ617364 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2703 AJ617357 Denis et al., 2006  
3'UTR 123 AJ617370 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 porcupine/80843/ITL/2012 VP1   awaited Cardeti et al., 2016  
3D(p) 235 KY201173 Cardeti et al., 2016  
EMCV-1 macaque/64771/ITL/2012 VP1   awaited Cardeti et al., 2016  
3D(p) 242 KY201174 Cardeti et al., 2016  
             
JAPAN?
EMCV-1 NIID-NU1 CG(p) 7263 LC508268 Doysabas et al., 2020  
             
NETHERLANDS
EMCV-1 pig/NET-001/88

VP3(p)+VP1(p)

282 AJ006856 Knowles et al., 1998  
             
PANAMA
EMCV-1 pig/D (derived from M which in turn
was derived from 1138/
Panama/58) (ifp-phenotype; Cohen)
CG 7842 M37588 Cohen et al., 1988  
CG 7829 M22458 Bae et al., 1989  
VP1 831 M20167 Eun et al., 1988  
EMCV-1 pig/B (derived from M which in turn was
derived from 1138/Panama/58)
CG 7825 M22457 Bae et al., 1989  
VP1 831 L40427 Eun et al., 1988  
5'UTR(p) 103 M16802 Jordan et al., 1987  
EMCV-1 pig/DV1 (derived from D which was derived
from M which in turn was derived from
1138/Panama/58)
CG 7828 na Bae et al. 1990 ?  
EMCV-1 pig/PV21 (derived from M which in turn
was derived from 1138/ Panama/58
(but sequence is related to 'R'))
CG 7861 X74312 Zimmerman et al., 1994  
EMCV-1 pig/PV2 (derived from M which in turn was
derived from 1138/ Panama/58)
CG 7820 X87335 Nelsen-Salz et al., 1996  
             
PERU
EMCV-1 human/Peru-2004/10854 3D(p) 231 EU979543 Oberste et al., 2009  
5'UTR(p) 142 EU979544 Oberste et al., 2009  
VP1(p) 736 EU979545 Oberste et al., 2009  
EMCV-1 human/Peru-2004/10855 3D(p) 219 EU979546 Oberste et al., 2009  
5'UTR(p) 145 EU979547 Oberste et al., 2009  
VP1(p) 738 EU979548 Oberste et al., 2009  
             
PORTUGAL
EMCV-1 vole/Mi7-ACPT (Microtus lusitanicus)
Portugal, 19-Apr-2010
VP2(p) 468 JX046005 Carvalho et al., unpub.  
             
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
EMCV-1 pig/CBNU CG 7713 DQ517424 Song et al., unpublished  
EMCV-1 pig/K3/South Korea/1990 CG 7731 EU780148 An et al., 2009  
EMCV-1 pig/K11/South Korea/1990 CG 7744 EU780149 An et al., 2009  
             
RUSSIA
EMCV-1 pig/Omsk-93 VP1(p) 791 Y15445 Amineva et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 pig/1029 VP1(p) 810 Y15448 Amineva et al., unpub.  
EMCV-1 baboon/3761IMP/RUS/2007 CG 7714 KX231802 Vyshemirskii et al., 2018 Papio hamadryas
             
SINGAPORE
EMCV-1 orangutan/SG-NParks-M100-02 CG(p) 7629 MT499387 Wang et al., unpub.  
             
SOUTH AFRICA
EMCV-1 pig/SAR/1/79 5'UTR(p)+L+P1 3371 JN800421 van Sandwyk et al., 2013  
3D(p) 246 JX102656 van Sandwyk et al., 2013  
EMCV-1 African elephant/KNP/17/94
 (Loxodonta africana)
5'UTR(p)+L+P1 3371 JN800422 van Sandwyk et al., 2013  
3D(p) 246 JX102657 van Sandwyk et al., 2013
EMCV-1 African elephant/KNP/19/94
 (Loxodonta africana)
5'UTR(p)+L+P1 3371 JN800423 van Sandwyk et al., 2013  
3D(p) 246 JX102658 van Sandwyk et al., 2013  
             
UGANDA
EMCV-1 Mengo UR22-M ? (Rhesus monkey) CG 7761 L22089 Palmenberg & Duke, unpub. rhesus monkey/Uganda/46
EMCV-1 Mengo (medium plaque - Rz-pMwt) CG 7765 DQ294633 Fata-Hartley and Palmenberg, 2005  
EMCV-1 Mengo 37A (Rhesus monkey) P1 2792 M88547 Mann et al., 1992  
EMCV-1 Mengo (Rhesus monkey) 3D(p) 230 AJ235698 Koenen et al., 1999  
             
USA
EMCV-1 R (Rueckert) L-fragment 7200 X00463 Palmenberg et al., 1984  
CG 7835 M81861 Duke et al., 1992  
EMCV-1 chimpanzee/ATCC VR-129B
 (Florida, 1944)
CG 7875 KM269482 Logan et al., 2014  
VP3(p)+VP1(p) 245 AJ235685 Koenen et al., 1999  
3D(p) 230 AJ235699 Koenen et al., 1999  
5'UTR 360 AJ617363 Denis et al., 2006  
L+P1 2703 AJ617356 Denis et al., 2006  
EMCV-1 pig/NVSL-FL (Florida/61) VP1(p) 750 X67502 Meng et al., unpublished  
EMCV-1 pig/EMCV-30/87 (aka MN-30) CG* 7678 AY296731 LaRue et al., 2003 *27 nt missing from the
5' end of the genome
EMCV-1 pEC9 CG 7722 DQ288856 Martin et al., 2000  
EMCV-1 hamster/MM/USA/1942 CG 7773 KP892662 Shifflett et al., unpub.  
             
ZAMBIA
EMCV-1 ZM12/14/Zambia/2012 CG(p) 7650 LC585221 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Mpulungu-03/Zambia/2012 3D(p) 277 LC585222 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Mpulungu-07/Zambia/2012 3D(p) 277 LC585223 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Mpulungu-49/Zambia/2012 3D(p) 277 LC585224 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Mpulungu-65/Zambia/2012 3D(p) 277 LC585225 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-03/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585226 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-08/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585227 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-11/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585228 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-12/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585229 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-13/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585230 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-16/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585231 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-20/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585232 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-21/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585233 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-22/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585234 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-23/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585235 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-24/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585236 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-25/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585237 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-26/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585238 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-27/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585239 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
EMCV-1 Solwezi-39/Zambia/2013 3D(p) 277 LC585240 Kishimoto et al., 2021 Mastomys natalensis
             
Unknown origin
EMCV-1 'Russian' S-frag 149 K01410 Vartapetian et al., 1983  
2C-3'UTR 2988 M54935 Petrov et al., 1984  

3D(p)+3'UTR

564

M38329

Grachev et al., 1983  
EMCV-1 ?

3'UTR

129

M24883

Porter et al., 1978  
EMCV-1 ?

3'UTR

171

V01129

Zimmern and Kaesberg, 1978  
EMCV-1 ?

3D(p)+3'UTR

420

J02082

Drake et al., 1982  
             

Encephalomyocarditis virus 2 (EMCV-2)

GERMANY
EMCV-2 mouse/RD 1338 (D28/05) (Germany, 2005)
 (Apodemus sylvaticus)
CG(p) 7606 JX257003 Philipps et al., 2012 5' end missing
             
SINGAPORE
EMCV-2 agouti/SG-G15150-19/Singapore/2019 CG(p) 7706 MN547968 Wang et al., unpub.  
             
THAILAND
EMCV-2 rat/RtBi-PicV/Tc2011/Thailand/2011
 (Bandicota indica)
PG 5287 MT085334 Wu et al., 2020  
             

Encephalomyocarditis virus 3 (EMCV-3)

SINGAPORE
EMCV-3 orangutan/Sing-M100/1/02 CG(p) 7630 KC310737 Yeo et al., 2013 ~200 nt missing from 5' end
VP1(p) 806 AY162280 Yeo et al., 2013  
3D(p) 190 AY162279 Yeo et al., 2013  
EMCV-3 orangutan/Sing-M105/1/02 CG(p) 7634 KC310738 Yeo et al., 2013 ~200 nt missing from 5' end
VP1(p) 759 AF525466 Yeo et al., 2013  
3D(p) 234 AF510055 Yeo et al., 2013  
             

Encephalomyocarditis virus 4 (EMCV-4)

VIETNAM(p)
EMCV-4 83GR-70-RAT044/VIT/2012 (Bandicota indica) VP1(p) 822 KT944132 Nguyen et al., unpub.  
EMCV-4 83GR-70-RAT094/VIT/2012 (Rattus argentiventer) VP1(p) 822 KT944133 Nguyen et al., unpub.  
EMCV-4 83GR-70-RAT141/VIT/2012 (Rattus argentiventer) VP1(p) 638 KT944134 Nguyen et al., unpub.  
             
CG = complete genome
(p) = partial gene sequence

References

Amineva S.P., Aminev A.G., Andreev V.G., Orljankin B.G., Gusev A.A. Diagnostic porcine encephalomyocarditis virus by nested polymerase chain reaction. Unpublished. [All-Russian Research The Pirbright Institute, Vladimir, 600900, Russia]

Backhans, A., Jacobson, M., Hansson, I., Lebbad, M., Lambertz, S.T., Gammelgĺrd, E., Saager, M., Akande, O. and Fellström, C. (2012). Occurrence of pathogens in wild rodents caught on Swedish pig and chicken farms. Epidemiol. Infect. 2012 Nov 23: 1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Bae, Y.S., Eun, H.M. and Yoon, J.W. (1989). Genomic differences between diabetogenic and nondiabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 170: 282-287.

Bae, Y.S., Eun, H.M., Pon, R.G., Giron, D. and Yoon, J.W. (1990). Two amino acids, Phe-16 and Ala776 on the polyprotein are most likely responsible for diabetogenicity of EMC virus. J. gen. Virol. 71: 639-645.

Bai, J., Jiang, K., Zeshan, B., Wang, X., Li, Y. and Jiang, P. (2012). Inhibition of encephalomyocarditis virus replication by shRNA targeting 1D and 3AB genes in vitro and in vivo. Virus Genes 44: 183-190.

Cardeti, G., Mariano, V., Eleni, C., Aloisi, M., Grifoni, G., Sittinieri, S., Dante, G., Antognetti, V., Foglia, E.A., Cersini, A. and Nardi, A. (2016). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Macaca sylvanus and Hystrix cristata from an Italian rescue centre for wild and exotic animals. Virol. J. 13: 193.

Chang, H., Chen, L., Zhao, J., Wang, X., Yang, X., Yao, H. and Wang, C. (2014). Complete genome sequence of porcine encephalomyocarditis virus from an aardvark in China. Genome Announc. 2: e00017-14.

Cohen S.H., Naviaux R.K., Vanden Brink K.M., Jordan G.W. (1988). Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of diabetogenic and nondiabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 166: 603-607.

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