Bovine Rhinoviruses: A Brief
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF,
Posted 23 February
2003; revised 2 March 2003; revised 23 February 2008
Bovine rhinoviruses (BRVs)
were first isolated in Germany by Bogel and Bohm (1962)
(Table 1). Further isolations of antigenically related viruses
followed in Germany (Mayr et al., 1965; Wizigmann and Schiefer,
1966), the United States (Mohanty and Lillie, 1968), England (Ide and
Darbyshire, 1969), Japan (Shimizu et al., 1973; Kurogi et al.,
1974), Italy (Persechi, 1974) and the Sudan (Eisa, 1980)
(Table 1). An antigenically distinct BRV was isolated
circa1964 by Reed et al. (1971) and
designated type 2 (Mohanty, 1973; Kurogi et al., 1975)(now renamed
bovine rhinitis B virus).
More recently a BRV
isolated in Japan has been proposed as BRV type 3
(Yamashita et al., 1985). Four BRVs isolated in the United States
were not compared with other BRVs (Rosenquist,
1971). No cross reactions have been detected between BRV type 1 (RS 3x) and
FMDV by VN (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969), between BRV types 1 (RS 3x) and 2
(EC11) and FMDV by complement fixation (CF; N.J.
Knowles, unpublished data), or between BRV type 1 and BEV types 1 and 2 by
VN (Ide and Darbyshire, 1969), or between BRV types 1 and 2 and BEV types 1
and 2 by CF (N.J. Knowles, unpublished data). No cross
reactions were detected between BRVs and antisera to bovine enteroviruses in
an indirect sandwich ELISA (Höfner
et al., 1993).
|Table 1. Bovine rhinoviruses (BRV)
||Bogel and Bohm, 1962
||Wizigmann and Schiefer, 1966
||Mohanty and Lillie, 1968
||Ide and Darbyshire, 1969
||Kurogi et al., 1974
||Shimizu et al., 1974
et al., 1980
||Reed et al., 1971
||Yamashita et al., 1985
The viruses are rapidly inactivated at
acid and alkaline pH, are inactivated at 50
°C and generally not stabilized by 1M MgCl2
although apparently some strains are stabilized
(e.g. C-07). Haemagglutination has been looked for but not demonstrated (Ide
and Darbyshire, 1969).
Bovine rhinoviruses have been isolated
from the upper respiratory tract of cattle with acute respiratory disease
and from nasal swabs taken from healthy animals. Their role in disease is
uncertain and experimental infections have sometimes produced sub-clinical
infection or mild respiratory disease (Mohanty et al., 1969; Betts
et al., 1971; Ide and Darbyshire, 1972c).
Antibody surveys would suggest these viruses are widespread in
domesticated cattle populations.
Growth in cell cultures
They appear only to grow in cell cultures
of bovine origin (e.g. calf
thyroid or calf kidney) and titres are higher at 33
°C than at 37
°C. CPE is evident,
however, viral titres are usually very low.
Relationship to human
cDNA and oligonucleotide probes have been used in hybridization assays to
group human rhino- and enteroviruses. These also appeared
to react with BRV type 1 (Sd-1) and type 2 (EC-11) (Al-Nakib
et al., 1986).
However, newly available nucleotide sequence data has shown that BRVs
are not members of the genus Rhinovirus (see below).
In 2005, partial genome sequence data
was presented at EURPOIC 2005 suggesting all three BRV serotypes were
most closely related to the aphthoviruses (Knowles, 2005). Subsequently
the (nearly) complete genome of BRV-2 was presented at EUROPIC 2006
(Hollister et al.,, 2006) confirming the earlier finding. From
the partial genome sequence data it was suggested that BRVs could be
divided into two species, one consisting of two serotypes, BRV-1 and
BRV-3, and the second consisting of BRV-2. These are both distinct from
the two existing Aphthovirus species, Foot-and-mouth
disease virus and Equine rhinitis A virus. The taxonomic
position of all three BRVs is currently under review by the ICTV
Picornaviridae Study Group.
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