In the proposed reorganisation of the genus Megrivirus it
is planned to abolish the species Melegrivirus A and to
create five new species, "Megrivirus A", "Megrivirus B", "Megrivirus
C", "Megrivirus D" and "Megrivirus E".
Melegrivirus A is
the type species in the genus
This species is comprised of turkey hepatitis virus 1
Melegrivirus A1 (MeV-A1) (Turkey hepatitis virus; THV-1)
A novel picornavirus has recently been identified as the probable
cause of hepatitis in turkeys (Honkavuori et al., 2011).
Turkey hepatitis virus 1 has a genome of >9,040 nt and a
predicted polyprotein of 2,813 aa making it the longest picornavirus
genome so far described. The 5' (461 nt) and 3' (173 & 136 nt) UTRs
Similar partial genome sequences (partial 3D and 3' UTR) have recently been detected in turkeys and
chickens (Farkas et al., 2012). These sequences show the 3'
UTR of THV to be 641-654 nt in length, the longest picornavirus 3'
UTR so far described.
Chicken picornavirus 4, described by Lau et al. (2014), shares
89.5%, 96.3% and 98% amino acid identity with THV-1 in the P1, 2BC
and 3BCD proteins.
Viral Hepatitis of Turkeys (Merck Veterinary Manual).
Melegrivirus A2 (MeV-A2) Duck megrivirus (DuMV)
A megri-like virus has been found in ducks in
et al. 2014).
Farkas, T., Fey, B., Hargitt, E. 3rd., Parcells, M., Ladman, B.,
Murgia, M. and Saif, Y. (2012). Molecular detection of novel
picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys. Virus Genes 44: 262-272.
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Honkavuori, K.S., Shivaprasad, H.L., Briese, T., Street, C.,
Hirschberg, D.L, Hutchison, S.K. and Lipkin, W.I. (2011). Novel
picornavirus in turkey poults with hepatitis, California, USA. Emerg.
Infect. Dis. 17: 480-487.
Klein, P.N., Castro, A.E., Meteyer, C.U., Reynolds,
B., Swartzman-Andert, J.A., Cooper, G., Chin, R.P. and Shivaprasad,
H.L. (1991). Experimental transmission of turkey viral hepatitis to
day-old poults and identification of associated viral particles
resembling picornaviruses. Avian Diseases 35: 115-125.
Lau, S.K., Woo,
P.C., Yip, C.C., Li, K.S., Fan, R.Y., Bai, R., Huang, Y., Chan, K.H. and
Yuen, K.Y. (2014). Chickens host diverse picornaviruses originated from
potential interspecies transmission with recombination. J. Gen. Virol.
Liao, Q., Zheng, L., Yuan, Y., Shi, J., Zhang, D. (2014). Genomic
characterization of a novel picornavirus in Pekin ducks. Veterinary
Microbiology 172: 78-91.
MacDonald, J.W., Randall, C.J., Dagless, M.D. and
Gray, E.W. (1982). Picorna- like virus causing hepatitis and
pancreatitis in turkeys. Vet. Rec. 111: 323.
Honkavuori, K.S., Briese, T. and Lipkin, W.I. (2010). A novel
picornavirus associated with turkey viral hepatitis. Presented at
the 147th American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Annual
Convention, Atlanta, Georgia, 31 July to 3 August 2010.
Snoeyenbos, G.H., Bosch, H.I. and Sevoian, M. (1959). An infectious
agent producing hepatitis in turkeys. Avian Diseases. 3: 377-388.
Tzianabos, T. and Snoeyenbos, G.H. (1965). Clinical. Immunological
and serological observations on turkeys virus hepatitis. Avian
Diseases 9: 578-591.