Rhinovirus C

Child level

RV-C seqs

Same level

Enterovirus A
Enterovirus B
Enterovirus C
Enterovirus D
Enterovirus E
Enterovirus F
Enterovirus G
Enterovirus H
Enterovirus I
Enterovirus J
Enterovirus K
Enterovirus L
Rhinovirus A
Rhinovirus B
Rhinovirus C
Unassigned EV
Prototype strains
EV refs
Viruses belonging to the species Rhinovirus C (formerly named Human rhinovirus C) are distinct from RV-A and RV-B. These viruses have been referred to as HRV-A2 (Arden et al., 2006; McErlean et al., 2007) due to its closer relationship with RV-A in some analyses, while others have called them HRV-C (Lamson et al., 2006; Lau et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2007; McErlean et al., 2008) or HRV-X (Kistler et al., 2007).

Proposals for the designation of RV-C types have been published (Simmonds et al., 2010; McIntyre et al., 2013).

There are now 57 RV-C types (C1-C57) designated.


Lethal Respiratory Disease Associated with Human Rhinovirus C in Wild Chimpanzees, Uganda, 2013 (Scully et al., 2018).


The Virology Down Under Rhinovirus blog (Ian M. Mackay)


Arden, K.E., McErlean, P., Nissen, M.D., Sloots, T.P. and Mackay, I.M. (2006). Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections. J. Med. Virol. 78: 1232-1240.

Kistler, A., Avila, P.C., Rouskin, S., Wang, D., Ward, T., Yagi. S., Schnurr, D., Ganem, D., DeRisi, J.L. and Boushey, H.A. (2007). Pan-viral screening of respiratory tract infections in adults with and without asthma reveals unexpected human coronavirus and human rhinovirus diversity. J. Infect. Dis. 196: 817-825. Epub 2007 Aug 6.

Lamson, D., Renwick, N., Kapoor, V., Liu, Z., Palacios, G., Ju, J., Dean, A., St George, K., Briese, T. and Lipkin, W.I. (2006). MassTag polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New York State during 2004-2005. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 1398-1402.

Lau, S.K., Yip, C.C., Tsoi, H.W., Lee, R.A., So, L.Y., Lau, Y.L., Chan, K.H., Woo, P.C. and Yuen, K.Y. (2007). Clinical features and complete genome characterization of a distinct human rhinovirus genetic cluster, probably representing a previously undetected HRV species, HRV-C, associated with acute respiratory illness in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 3655-3664.

Lee, W.-M., Kiesner, C., Pappas, T., Lee, I., Grindle, K., Jartti, T., Jakiela, B., Lemanske, R.F. Jr., Shult, P.A. and Gern, J.E. (2007). A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants. PLoS ONE 2(10): e966. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000966.

McErlean, P., Shackelton, L.A., Lambert, S.B., Nissen, M.D., Sloots, T.P. and Mackay, I.M. (2007). Characterisation of a newly identified human rhinovirus, HRV-QPM, discovered in infants with bronchiolitis. J. Clin. Virol. 39: 67-75.

McErlean, P., Shackelton, L.A., Andrews, E., Webster, D.R., Lambert, S.B., Nissen, M.D., Sloots, T.P. and Mackay, I.M. (2008), Distinguishing molecular features and clinical characteristics of a putative new rhinovirus species, Human rhinovirus C (HRV C). PLoS ONE 3(4): e1847 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001847.

McIntyre, C.L., Knowles, N.J. and Simmonds, P. (2013). Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species A, B and C into genotypically assigned types. J. Gen. Virol. 94: 1791-1806.

Scully, E.J., Basnet, S., Wrangham, R.W., Muller, M.N., Otali, E., Hyeroba, D., Grindle, K.A., Pappas, T.E., Thompson, M.E., Machanda, Z., Watters, K.E., Palmenberg, A.C., Gern, J.E. and Goldberg, T.L. (2018). Lethal Respiratory Disease Associated with Human Rhinovirus C in Wild Chimpanzees, Uganda, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;24(2):267-274. doi: 10.3201/eid2402.170778. PubMed PMID: 29350142.

Simmonds, P., McIntyre, C.L., Savolainen-Kopra, C., Tapparel, C., Mackay, I.M. and Hovi, T. (2010). Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species C into genotypically-assigned types. J. Gen. Virol. 91: 24092419. 2010 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20610666.


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