EMCV Bibliography

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Acland, H.M. (1989). Encephalomyocarditis virus. In: Virus Infections of Porcines. Ed. M.B. Pensaert. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp 259‑264.

Acland, H.M. and Littlejohns, I.R. (1975). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection of pigs. 1. An outbreak in New South Wales. Aust. vet. J. 51: 409-415.

Acland, H.M. and Littlejohns, I.R. (1986). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection. In: Diseases of Swine, 6th edition. Eds. A.D. Leman, B. Straw, R.D. Glock, W.L. Mengeling, R.H.C. Penny and E. Scholl. Ames, Iowa: 1986. pp 399‑402.

Acland, H.M., Littlejohns, I.R. and Walker, R.I. (1970). Suspected encephalomyocarditis virus infection of pigs. Aust. vet. J. 46: 348.

Adamcová, J. and Bárdoš, V. (1959). Notes on the study of the ecology of viruses of the Col SK group. Acta Virol. 3: 234-239.

Amaddeo, D., Cardeti, G. and Autorino, G.L. (1995). Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus from dormice (Myoxus glis) in Italy. J. Wildlife Diseases 31: 238-242.

An, D‑J., Song, J‑Y., Yang, M‑W., Lee, J‑B., Park, J‑H., Hyun, B‑H., Park, N‑Y. and An, S‑H. (1997). Cloning and sequence analysis of VP1 gene of porcine encephalomyocarditis virus isolated in Korea. RDA Journal of Veterinary Science 39: 24‑32.

Anon. (1990). Breeders warned on viruses. Pig International, December 1990, pp 30-34.

Anon. (1993). Oxford Vet Lab's EMC vaccine approved. Animal Pharm No. 286, p.15.

Bae, Y.S. and Yoon, J.-W. (1993). Determination of diabetogenicity attributable to a single amino acid, Ala776, on the polyprotein of encephalomyocarditis virus. Diabetes 42: 435-443.

Bae, Y.-S., Eun, H.-M. and Yoon, J.-W. (1989). Genomic differences between the diabetogenic and nondiabetogenic variants of encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 170: 282-287.

Bakkali Kassimi, L., Boutrouille, A., Gonzague, M., Mbanda, A.L., Cruciere, C. (2002). Nucleotide sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of an EMCV strain isolated from aborted swine fetus. Virus Research 83: 71 ‑ 87.

Bárdoš, V., Adamcová, J., Dedei, S., Gjini, N., Rosicky, B. and Simkova, A. (1959). Neutralizing antibodies against some neurotropic viruses determined in human sera in Albania. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 3: 277-???

Bartz, C.R. and Montali, R.J. (1987). Encephalomyocarditis virus. In: Virus Infections of Carnivores. Ed. M.J. Appel. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp 463‑466.

Billinis, C., Koutinas, A., Paschaleri‑Papadopoulou, E. and Papadopoulos, O. (1997). Serum creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehyrogenase-1 isoenzyme activities in piglets infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Veterinary Record, in press. (Draft copy)

Black, D.N., Stephenson, P., Rowlands, D.J. and Brown, F. (1979). Sequence and location of the poly C tract in aphtho- and cardiovirus RNA. Nucl. Acids Res. 6: 2381-2390.

Abstract: The poly C tract in the RNA of the aphtho- and cardio viruses has been examined in several isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The length of the tract is variable, containing 100 to 170 bases in the FMDV isolates and 80 to 250 bases in the EMC virus isolates. Each poly C tract contains c. 10% A and U residues, located at the 5' end, i.e. most of the tract is a continuous run of C residues. The position of the tract on the genome was the same in each of the FMDV isolates, about 400 bases from the 5' end, whereas in the EMC virus isolates it was about 150 bases from the 5' end.

Blanchard, J.L., Soike, K. and Baskin, G.B. (1987). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in African green and squirrel monkeys: comparison of pathologic effects. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37: 635-639.

Boege, U., Kobasa, D., Onodera, S., Parkes, G.D., Palmenberg, A.C. and Scraba, D.G. (1991). Characterization of mengo virus neutralization epitopes. Virology 181: 1-13.

Bogaerts, W.J.C. and Durville-van der Oord, B.J. (1973). Immunization of mice with live attenuated encephalomyocarditis virus: local immunity and survival. Infect. Immun. 8: 528-533.

Boulton, J. (1985). Encephalomyocarditis virus disease in pigs. In: Veterinary viral diseases. Their significance in South‑East Asia and the Western Pacific. Proc. Int. Seminar virus diseases of veterinary importance in South‑East Asia and the Western Pacific held at ANAHL, Geelong, Aug. 1984 ed. A.J. Della‑Porta. Sydney: Acad. Press, pp 525‑528

Boulton, J.G. (1987). Antibody to encephalomyocarditis virus in pigs. Can. vet. J. 28: 713.

Brewer, L.A., Lwamba, H.C.M., Murtaugh, M.P., Palmenberg, A.C., Brown, C., and Njenga1, M.K.  (2001). Porcine encephalomyocarditis virus persists in pig myocardium and infects human myocardial cells. J. Virol. 75: 11621‑11629.

Candotti, P., Carra, E., De Simone, F. and Brocchi, E. (1997). Clinical, anatomophatological and epidemiological studies, isolation and antigenic characterization of the virus in a severe encephalomyocarditis outbreak. Atti della Societŕ Italiana di Patologia ed Allevamento dei Suini, Verona, Italy, 1997, p. 305‑319.

Castryck, F., Miry, C., Koenen, F. and Ducatelle, R. (1996). Clinical and pathological aspects of encephalomyocarditis virus infections in pigs in Belgium. Proceedings of the 14th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Bologna, Italy, 7-10 July 1996, p. 132.

Causey, O.R., Shope, R.E. and Laemmert, H. (1962). Report of an epizootic of encephalomyocarditis virus in Para, Brazil. Rev. Serv. Esp. Saúde Pública 12: 47-50.

Cerutis, D.R., Bruner, R.H., Thomas, D.C. and Giron, D.J. (1989). Tropism and histopathology of the D, B, K, and MM variants of encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Med. Virol. 29: 63-69.

Christianson, W.T., Kim, H.S., Joo, H.S. and Barnes, D.M. (1990). Reproductive and neonatal losses associated with possible encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs. Vet. Rec. 126: 54‑57.

Christianson, W.T., Kim, H.S., Yoon, I.J. and Joo, H.S. (1992). Transplacental infection of porcine fetuses following experimental challenge inoculation with encephalomyocarditis virus. Am. J. vet. Res. 53: 44-47.

Craighead, J.E. (1965). Some properties of encephalomyocarditis, Columbia SK and Mengo viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 119: 408-412.

Craighead, J.E. (1966). Pathogenicity of the M and E variants of the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. Am. J. Pathol. 48: 333-345.

Craighead, J.E. and McLane, M.F. (1968). Diabetes mellitus: induction in mice by encephalomyocarditis virus. Science 162: 913-914.

Craighead, J.E., Peralta, P.H., Murnane, T.G. and Shelokov, A. (1963). Oral infection of swine with the encephalomyocarditis virus. J. infect. Dis. 112: 205-212.

Cronin, M.E., Love, L.A., Miller, F.W., McClintock, P.R. and Plotz, P.H. (1988). The natural history of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced myositis and myocarditis in mice. Viral persistence demonstrated by in situ hybridization. J. exp. Med. 168: 1639-1648.

Cui, T. and Porter, A.G. (1995). Localization of binding site for encephalomyocarditis virus RNA polymerase in the 3'-noncoding region of the viral RNA. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 377-382.

Dea, S.A., Bilodeau, R. and Martineau, G.P. (1991). Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus among stillborn and post-weaning pigs in Quebec. Archives of Virology 117: 121-128.

Dea, S., Bilodeau, R., Sauvageau, R. and Martineau, G.P. (1991). Outbreaks in Quebec pig farms of respiratory and reproductive problems associated with encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 3: 275-282.

Derbyshire, J.B. (1981). Virus diseases of pigs. In: Virus Diseases of Food Animals I. Ed. E.P.J. Gibbs. London: Academic Press, pp 179‑204. [MAIN LIBRARY]

Dick, G.W.A. (1949). The relationship of mengo encephalomyelitis, encephalomyocarditis Columbia-SK and M.M. viruses. J. Immunol. 62: 375-386.

Dick, G.W.A. (1953). Epidemiological notes on some viruses isolated in Uganda (Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Bwamba fever, West Nile, Mengo, Semliki Forest, Bunyamwera, Ntaya, Uganda S and Zika viruses). Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 47: 13-48.

Dick, G.W.A., Best, A.M., Haddow, A.J., Smithburn, K.C. (1948). Mengo encephalomyelitis a hitherto unknown virus affecting man. Lancet 2: 286-289. (vol 2, 8: 286-289?)

Dick, G.W.A., Smithburn, K.C. and Haddow, A.J. (1948). Mengo encephalomyelitis virus: isolation and immunological properties. Brit. J. Exper. Path. 29: 547-558.

Doi, C., Takeda, M., Hirasawa, K. and Doi, K. (1993). Transmissibility of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) in mice. Laboratory Animals 27: 222-225.

Doi, K., Ikegami, H., Ishii, K., Doi, C., Yamanouchi, Y. and Sugano, S. (1995). Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in the common vole, Microtus arvalis. Laboratory Animals 29: 180-184.

Dzhikidze, E.K., Schevtzova, S.V., Krylova, R.I, Balaeva, E.Y., Voskanjan, N.A. and Uvarova, V.I. (1974). Etiology of encephalomyocarditis in rhesus monkeys. Z. Versuchstierkd. 16: 142-149.

Dzhikidze, E.K., Krylova, R.I, Balaeva, E.Y. and Chalyan, V.G. (1982). Entsefalomiokardit u pavianov gamadrilov [Encephalomyocarditis in baboons (Papio hamadryas)]. Vopr. Virusol. 27: 418-422. (Translation available)

Ellem, K.A.O. and Colter, J.S. (1961). The isolation of three variants of Mengo virus differing in plaque morphology and hemagglutination characteristics. Virology 15: 340-347.

Findlay, G.M. and Howard, E.M. (1951). Observations on Columbia SK virus. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 63: 435-443.

Foni, E., Barigazzi, G., Sidoli, L., Marcato, P.S., Sarli, G., Salda, L. and Della Spinaci, M. (1993). Experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 40 (5): 347‑352

Fontenille, D. (1989). Etude des circuits de vection d'arbovirus, a Madagascar. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Madagascar 55: 1-317. [Arbovirus transmission cycles in Madagascar]

Fuerst, C.R. (1961). Plaque-type mutants of murine encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 13: 553-554.

Gainer, J.H. (1961). Studies on the natural and experimental infections of animals in Florida with the encephalomyocarditis virus. Proc. U.S. Livestock Sanit. Assoc. 65: 556-572.

Gainer, J.H. (1967). Encephalomyocarditis virus infections in Florida, 1960-1966. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151: 421-425.

Gainer, J.H. (1974). Viral myocarditis in animals. Adv. Cardiol. 13: 94-105.

Gainer, J.H. and Bigler, W.I. (1967). Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus recovered from two cotten rats and a raccoon. Bull. Wildlife Dis. Assoc. 3: 47-49.

Gainer, J.H. and Murchison, T.E. (1961). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection of swine. Vet. Med. 56: 173-175.

Gainer, J.H., Sandefur, J.R. and Bigler, W.J. (1968). High mortality in a Florida swine herd infected with the encephalomyocarditis virus. An accompanying epizootiologic survey. Cornell. vet. 58: 31-47.

Gajdusek, D.C. (1955). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in childhood. Pediatrics 16: 902-907.

Gard, G.P., Batty, E.M. and Saba, H.M. (1974). Microtiter hemagglutination-inhibition test for the detection of encephalomyocarditis virus antibodies. Applied Microbiology 27: 272-273.

Gaskin, J.M., Jorge, M.A., Simpson, C.F., Lewis, A.L., Olsen, J.H., Schobert, E.E., Wollenman, E.P., Marlowe, C. and Curtis, M.M. (1980). The tragedy of encephalomyocarditis infection in zoological parks of Florida. Am. Assoc. Zoo. Vet. Annu. Proc. 1980: 1-7.

Gatti R., Nigrelli, A.D., Corradini, C.E., Bugnetti, M. and Sanziani, E. (1988). Un grave episodio di encefalomiocardite virale in suinetti lattanti. Atti della Societŕ Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie, Mantova, Italia, 29 September-1 October 1988, part 2, 877-878.

Ghosh, S.N. and Rajagopalan, P.K. (1973). Encephalomyocarditis virus activity in Mus booduga (Gray) in Barur Village (1961-1962), Sager KFD area, Mysore State, India. Indian J. Med. Res. 61: 989-991.

Glastonbury, J.R.W. (1977). Preweaning mortality in the pig. Pathological findings in piglets dying between birth and weaning. Aust. vet. J. 53: 310-314.

Gomez, L., Lorenzo, M., Ramos, J.R., Luya, M.J., Mayo, D. and Giral, T. (1982). Aislamiento del virus de la encefalomiocarditis en una cerda y su feto. (Isolation of the encephalomyocarditis virus in a sow and her fetus). Rev. Cub. Cienc. Vet. 13: 21-24.

Gomez, L., Trujillo, N., Lorenzo, F., Martinez, N., Puentes, T., Hernandez, C.N., Redondo, R., De La Vega, Y.M. (1995). Obtainment, optimization and field evaluation of the first vaccine against viral encephalomyocarditis (VEMC). Revista Cubana de Ciencias Veterinarias 24: 9‑15.

Grešíková, M., Sekeyová, M., Raj_áni, J., Nosek, J., Škultétyová, A. (1978). Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus from the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in Czechoslovakia. Acta. Virol. 22: 322-324.

Grobler, D.G., Raath, J.P., Braack, L.E.O., Keet, D.F., Gerdes, G.H., Barnard, B.J.H., Kriek, N.P.J., Jardine, J. and Swanepoel, R. (1995). An outbreak of encephalomyocarditis-virus infection in free-ranging African elephants in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62: 97-108.

Gualandi, G.L., Cammi, G. and Cardeti, G. (1989). A serologic survey of encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs in Italy. Microbiologica 12: 129-132.

Hahn, H. and Palmenberg, A.C. (1995). Encephalomyocarditis viruses with short poly(C) tracts are more virulent than their mengovirus counterparts. Journal of Virology 69: 2697-2699.

Häni, H. and Pfister, K. (1983?). Myocarditis and meningo-encephalitis in piglets. Int. Pig Vet. Symp. Copenhagen, p.88.

Helwig, F.C. and Schmidt, E.C.H. (1945). A filter-passing agent producing interstitial myocarditis in anthropoid apes and small animals. Science 102: 31-33.

Hill, B.D., Ketterer, P.J., Rodwell, B.J., Eaves, F.W. and Webster, W.R. (1985). Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pig disease in Queensland. Aust. vet. J. 62: 433‑434.

Hirasawa, K., Han, J.S., Takeda, M., Itagaki, S. and Doi, K. (1992). Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced myocarditis by different virus variants and mouse strains. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 54: 1125-1129.

Horgan, E.S. (1951). Virus Research Institute, Annual Report, 1950, p. 6, Nairobi, East African High Commision.

Horgan, E.S. (1951). Virus Research Institute Annual Report, 1950. Govt. Printer Nairobi.

Horgan, E.S. (1952). Virus Research Institute Annual Report, 1951. Govt. Printer Nairobi.

Horner, G.W. and Hunter, R. (1979). Experimental infection in pigs with encephalomyocarditis virus. N.Z. vet. J. 27: 202-203.

Howerth, E.W., Reeves, A.J., McElveen, M.R. and Austin, F.W. (1994). Survey for selected diseases in nutria (Myocastor coypus) from Louisiana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30: 450-453.

Hu, D.G., Chan, C.H., Shieh, W.Y. and Chang, C.S. (1993). Epidemiological studies of swine encephalomyocarditis virus infection. Research Report ‑ Animal Industry Research Institute, Taiwan Sugar Corporation 1993 (1992/93) 149‑154.

Hubbard, G.B., Soike, K.F., Butler, T.M., Carey, K.D., Davis, H., Butcher, W.I. and Gauntt, C.J. (1992). An encephalomyocarditis virus epizootic in a baboon colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 42: 233-239.

Huber, S.A. (1994). VCAM-1 is a receptor for encephalomyocarditis virus on murine vascular endothelial cells. Journal of Virology 68: 3453-3458.

Ikegami, H., Takeda, M.  and Doi, K. (1997). An age‑related change in susceptibility of rat brain to encephalomyocarditis virus infection. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 78: 101‑107.

Jin, Y.-M., Pardoe, I.U., Burness, A.T.H. and Michalak, T.I. (1994). Identification and characterization of the cell surface 70-kilodalton sialoglycoprotein(s) as a candidate receptor for encephalomyocarditis virus on human nucleated cells. Journal of Virology 68: 7308-7319.

Jones, T.C. (19??). Encephalomyelitides. Chapter 16. pp 369-384. (Diseases of Swine 4th Edition???)

Jones, P., Mahamba, C., Rest, J. and André, C. (2005). Fatal inflammatory heart disease in a bonobo (Pan paniscus). J. Med. Primatol. 34: 45-49.

We report the first probable identification of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in a bonobo (Pan paniscus) that had been part of a forest re-introduction programme. Clinical presentation was of episodic acute on chronic heart failure and cerebral infarction with end-stage renal failure rather than sudden death which is more commonly associated with EMCV infection. A postmortem diagnosis of probable EMCV was made using gross pathological and histopathological examination. Findings included acute on chronic heart failure combined with the unusual but characteristic histopathological features of non-suppurative necrotizing myocarditis with mononuclear, inflammatory infiltration of the brain.

Jongen, P.J., Zoll, G.J., Beaumont, M., Melchers, W.J., van de Putte, L.B. and Galama, J.M. (1993). Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: no persistence of enterovirus or encephalomyocarditis virus RNA in muscle. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 52: 575‑578.

Joo, H.S. (1988). EMC virus causes poor reproduction. International Pigletter 8: 3-4.

Joo, H.S. (1992). Encephalomyocarditis virus. In: Diseases of Swine, 7th edition. Ed. A.D. Leman, B.E. Straw, W.L. Mengeling, S. D'Allaire and D.J. Taylor. Chapter 17. Wolfe Publishing. pp.257-262.

Joo, H.S., Kim, H.S. and Leman A.D. (1988). Detection of antibody to encephalomyocarditis virus in mummified or stillborn pigs. Arch. Virol. 100: 131‑134.

Jun, H.S., Yoon, S‑W., Kang, Y., Pak, C.Y., Lee, M.C. and Yoon, J‑W. (1995). Cloning and expression of the VP1 major capsid protein of diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus and prevention of EMC virus‑induced diabetes by immunization with the recombinant VP1 protein. Journal of General Virology 76: 2557‑2566.

Jungeblut, C.S. and Dalldorf, G. (1943). Epidemiological and experimental observations on the possible significance of rodents in a suburban epidemic of poliomyelitis. Am. J. Public Health 33: 169-172.

Jungeblut, C.S. and Sanders, M. (1940). Studies of a murine strain of poliomyelitis virus in cotten rats and white mice. J. exp. Med. 72: 406-436.

Karimov, S.K., Lvov, D.K. and Kiryushchenko, T.V. (1989). Syrdarya Valley fever, a new virus disease in Kazakhstan. In: Arboviruses and Arboviral Infections. Abstracts book, ed. by D.K. Lvov. from "An International Symposium on Arboviruses and Arboviral Infections", Moscow, U.S.S.R., October 3-5, 1989.

Karimov, S.K., Lvov, D.V. and Kiryushchenko, T.V. (1991). Syrdarya Valley fever, a new virus disease in Kazakhstan. Arch. Virol., Suppl. 1: 345.

Kelly, P.M., Shanley, J.D. and Sears, J. (1983). Replication of encephalomyocarditis virus in various mammalian cell types. J. Med. Virol. 11: 257-264.

Kerr, J.A. (1952). Studies on certain viruses isolated in the tropics of Africa and South America. Immunological reactions as determined by cross complement-fixation tests. J. Immunol. 68: 461-472.

Kilham, L., Mason, P. and Davies, J.N.P. (1955). Pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infections in albino rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 90: 383-387.

Kilham, L., Mason, P. and Davies, J.N.P. (1956). Host-virus relations in encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infections. 1. Infection of wild rats. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 5: 647-654.

Kilham, L., Mason, P. and Davies, J.N.P. (1956). Host-virus relations in encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infections. 2. Myocarditis in mongooses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 5: 655-663.

Kim, Y‑W. (1995). Viral factors related to diabetogenicity of encephalomyocarditis virus. Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology 30: 671‑681.

Kim, H.S., Joo, H.S. and Bergeland, M.E. (1989). Serologic, virologic and histopathologic observations of encephalomyocarditis virus infection in mummified and stillborn pigs. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 1: 101-104.

Kim, H.S., Christianson, W.T. and Joo, H.S. (1989). Pathogenic properties of encephalomyocarditis virus isolates in swine fetuses. Arch. Virol. 109: 51‑57.

Kim, H.S., Christianson, W.T. and Joo, H.S. (1991). Characterization of encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from aborted swine fetuses. Am. J. vet. Res. 52: 1649-1652.

Kim, H.S., Joo, H.S., Christianson, W.T. and Morrison, R.B. (1991). Evaluation of serologic methods for the detection of antibodies to encephalomyocarditis virus in swine fetal thoracic fluids. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 3: 283-286.

Kirkland, P.D., Gleeson, A.B., Hawkes, R.A., Naim, H.M. and Broughton, C.R. (1989). Human infection with encephalomyocarditis virus in New South Wales. Med. J. Aust. 151: 176-177.

Kissling, R.E., Vanella, J.M. and Schaeffer, M. (1956). Recent isolations of encephalomyocarditis virus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 91: 148-150.

Koenen, F. (1994). Clinical, serological, virological and histological observations of encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs. Pig Journal 33: 21‑29.

Koenen, F. and Vanderhallen, H. (1997). Comparative study of the pathogenic properties of a Belgian and a Greek encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) isolate for sows in gestation. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 44: 281‑286.

Koenen, F., De Clercq, K. and Strobbe, R. (1991). Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus in the offspring of swine with reproductive failure in Belgium. Vlaams Diergeneeskd Tijdschr 60: 113-115.

Koenen, F., De Clercq, K., Lefebvre, J. and Strobbe, R. (1994). Reproductive failure in sows following experimental infection with a Belgian EMCV isolate. Veterinary Microbiology 39: 111‑116.

Koenen, F., Vanderhallen, H., Castryck, F., Miry, C. and Fockedey, M. (1996). Epidemiologic, pathogenetic and molecular analysis of the first encephalomyocarditis outbreak in fattening pigs in Belgium. Proceedings of the 14th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Bologna, Italy, 7-10 July 1996, p. 96.

Koenen, F., Vanderhallen, H., Papadopoulos, O., Billinis, C., Paschaleri-Papadopoulou, E., Brocchi, E., De Simone, F., Carra, E. and Knowles, N.J. (1997). Comparison of the pathogenic, antigenic and molecular characteristics of two encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) isolates from Belgium and Greece. Research in Veterinary Science 62: 239-244.

Kovatch, R.M., Garcia Mora, R. and Medina, G. (1969). Encefalomiocarditis en cerdas lactantes. Rev. Fac. Med. Vet. Zootec. (Univ. San Carlos, Guatemala) 2: 51-54.

Kraaijeveld, C.A., Oosterlaken, T.A.M., Vlaspolder, F., van Dijk, P.W., Harmsen, M., Fernández, I.M., Benaissa-Trouw, B.J. and Snippe, H. (1993). Detection of a shared idiotope on two encephalomyocarditis virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies by neutralization inhibition enzyme immunoassay. J. Virol. Meth. 44: 319-328.

Krylova, R.I., Balaeva, E.I., Voskanian, N.A., Dzhikidze, E.K. and Shevtsova, Z.V. (1977). [Pathologic anatomy of experimental diseases of small laboratory animals caused by encephalomyocarditis virus (strain EMK-70)]. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 84: 368-372. [Article in Russian]

Abstract: The results of pathomorphological investigation of the disease in small laboratory animals experimentally induced by the EMC-70 strain of encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from monkeys are presented. Irrespective of the mode of virus injection, the newborn and juvenile mice developed some lesions in the brown fat, transverse-striated muscles, as well as in the brain and heart. In guinea pigs the changes were characterized by the development of severe myocarditis and encephalitis accompanied by viral antigen accumulation. The disease induced by the EMC-70 strain could not be differentiated from the Coxsackie infection by the pathomorphological data. This fact should be taken into consideration in solving some problems pertinent to pathoanatomical diagnosis of viral diseases.

Krylova, R.I. and Dzhikidze, E.K. (2005). Encephalomyocarditis in monkeys. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 139: 355-359. [English, Russian.]

Institute of Medical Primatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Sochi.
This paper presents the results of studies of a spontaneous viral infection in monkeys--encephalomyocarditis caused by encephalomyocarditis virus. The infection first detected in the Sukhumi Breeding Center in 1974 was observed in the Adler Breeding Center since 2001. The characteristics of the virus are described and principles of diagnostic by the results of pathologic studies are presented.

Kudo, H., Yoshizawa, S., Hiroike, T. and Hirose, O. (1995). A retrospective serological survey of the encephalomyocarditis virus among pigs in Chiba prefecture, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 57: 793‑795.

Kyu, B., Matsumori, A., Sato, Y., Okada, I., Chapman, N.M. and Tracy, S. (1992). Cardiac persistence of cardioviral RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction in a murine model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 86: 522-530.

Leforban, Y. Sudden death in pigs related with encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Ivory Coast. Unpublished manuscript (given to me by E. Brocchi).

Lennette, E.H. and Schmidt, N.J. (19xx). In: Diagnostic Proceedures .........

Liebhaber, H. and Takemoto, K.K. (1961). Alteration of plaque morphology of EMC virus with polycations. Virology 14: 502-504.

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