May 2007: A new Theiler's-like virus named
Saffold virus (SAFV) has been isolated from a child in
California (Jones et al., 2007). It is distinct from TMEV,
VHEV and TRV making it a fourth virus. The complete genome sequence
is now available [EF165067].
Now referred to as SAFV-1 following the finding
of a second Saffold-like virus.
Dec 2007: Another Saffold-like virus sequence
(complete polyprotein coding region) has been released on GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ: AM922293.
It is most closely related to the Saffold virus mentioned above,
however, differs considerably in the capsid-coding region. It was
isolated from Canadian child with respiratory symptoms on 6th March
2006 (Abed and Boivin, 2008). It is referred to as SAFV-2
on these pages.
March 2008: An
outbreak an enteric disease possibly due to Saffold virus
has been reported (Fuller et al., 2008). It was not
specified if this virus was similar to SAFV-1 or SAFV-2, or if it is
a novel SAFV.
from Fuller et al., 2008.
In 2004, the Minnesota (MN) Department of Health received
funds from CDC to conduct enhanced laboratory testing to
better describe causes of enteric illness, and a variety of
novel tests were implemented. The resulting expanded testing
panel included tests for known and possible bacterial,
viral, and parasitic pathogens. The panel was used in an
attempt to establish etiologies of enteric disease outbreaks
in MN that initially tested negative for standard bacterial
pathogens and norovirus.
Enteric disease outbreaks in MN during 2002-2006 for which
an etiology was not laboratory confirmed, and stool samples
were still available (n=16), were tested using enhanced
methods. Rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus testing used
conventional RT-PCR. Norovirus testing used a real time
RT-PCR; primers and probes detected genogroups I, II and IV.
Enrichment Broth, Oxford Medium, and PALCAM Agar. If there
were no positive results for an outbreak after all tests
were completed, pathogen discovery methods were used. This
included sequencing of unusual banding patterns on RT-PCR
Positive findings were obtained for 8 (50%) outbreaks of
unknown etiology. These included an outbreak of febrile
gastroenteritis due to
associated with a restaurant; three sapovirus outbreaks in
nursing homes; one sapovirus outbreak in an elementary
school; one norovirus outbreak associated with a family
gathering; one daycare outbreak which included astrovirus,
rotavirus, and norovirus positive results; and the first
ever detected Saffold virus (Picornaviridae,
outbreak, which was associated with a family gathering
(route of transmission unknown).
Enhanced testing explained the etiology of half of enteric
disease outbreaks of unknown etiology for which samples were
available. Pathogens that are not tested for in traditional
laboratory settings may be significant contributors to
enteric disease. Outbreaks represent a critical opportunity
to identify new or unusual causes of enteric disease. Public
health laboratories should retain stool samples from all
outbreaks until an etiology has been established and pursue
enhanced testing when standard methods fail to identify a
probable causative agent.
May 2008: A second SAFV-2 genome sequence released (EU376394;
Chiu et al., 2008).
Aug 2008: More Saffold viruses from humans, including a
third (geno)type (Drexler et al., 2008)
February 2009: Five more SAFV (geno)types discovered (Blinkova
et al., 2009), bring the total to eight.
June 2009: Another Saffold virus (SAFV-9) found by Olga
2012: Two new Saffold virus types (10 and 11) published on
GenBank; plus complete genome sequences for all 11 types (A. Naeem &
H. Shimizu, unpub.).
Search for Saffold virus on GenBank
Abed, Y. and Boivin, G. (2008). New Saffold cardioviruses in 3
children, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:
Blinkova, O., Kapoor, A., Victoria, J., Naeem, A.,
Shaukat, S., Sharif, S., Alam, M.M., Angez, M., Zaidi, S. and
Delwart, E.L. (2009). Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and
common enteric infections in South Asian children. J. Virol. Ahead
of print on 4 February 2009; doi:10.1128/JVI.02085-08.
Chiu, C.Y., Greninger, A.L., Kanada, K., Kwok, T., Fischer, K.F.,
Runckel, C., Louie, J.K., Glaser, C.A., Yagi, S., Schnurr, D.P.,
Haggerty, T.D., Parsonnet, J., Ganem, D. and DeRisi, J.L. (2008).
Identification of cardioviruses related to Theiler's murine
encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
U.S.A. 105: 14124-14129.
Drexler, J.F., de Souza Luna, L.K., Stöcker, A., Silva Almeida, P.,
Medrado Ribeiro, T.C., Petersen, N., Herzog, P., Pedroso, C.,
Huppertz, H.I., da Costa Ribeiro, H. Jr., Baumgarte, S. and Drosten,
C. (2008). Circulation of 3 lineages of a novel saffold cardiovirus
in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1398-1405.
Cebelinski E., Bartkus J., Juni B., Smith K. and Besser J. (2008).
Enhanced laboratory testing of enteric disease outbreaks of unknown
etiology in Minnesota [abstract]. International Conference on
Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008: slide sessions and poster
abstracts. Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial on the
Internet]. 2008 Mar 14.Available from
Jones, M.S., Lukashov, V.V., Ganac, R.D., Schnurr,
D.P. (2007). Discovery of a novel human picornavirus from a
pediatric patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. J. Clin.
Microbiol. 45: 2144-2150.