||It now appears that the turkey entero-like virus
described by Guy and Barnes (1991) is actually turkey astrovirus 2
(Guy et al., 2004).
Abstract from Guy and Barnes (1991)...
Small round viruses, 18 to 24 nm in diameter, were detected by
electron microscopy in droppings of young turkeys with enteritis.
The virus was propagated in embryonated turkey eggs and tentatively
identified as an enterovirus based on size, intracytoplasmic
morphogenesis, buoyant density of 1.33 g/ml in CsCl, and a
single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 7.5 kb. It was
distinguished from avian encephalomyelitis virus by cross-immunofluorescence.
These results identify an enterovirus-like virus as a possible
etiologic agent of enteric disease of young turkeys. However, its
role in this disease remains to be established.
Abstract from Despins et al. (1994)...
Larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm) were exposed to
turkey feces from an enteritis-affected flock and determined to
contain turkey enterovirus and rotavirus. Growth depression and
increased mortality were observed in turkey poults which fed on the
exposed larvae. Exposed larvae which had been surface-sterilized
also produced clinical signs of enteritis after consumption by the
poults, indicating that pathogens were able to survive within the
larvae. This experiment demonstrated the capacity of the larva of
the darkling beetle to serve as a mechanical vector for enteric
pathogens of turkeys.
Abstract from Guy et al. (2004)...
A small round virus (SRV) was isolated in 1988 from droppings of
enteritis-affected turkeys in North Carolina and tentatively
identified as an enterovirus on the basis of size (18–24 nm in
diameter), intracytoplasmic morphogenesis, and a single-stranded RNA
genome of approximately 7.5 kb. Additional characterization studies
based on antigenic and genomic analyses were done to determine the
relationship of this turkey enterovirus-like virus (TELV) to turkey
astrovirus 2 (TAstV2), a recently characterized SRV of turkeys.
Cross-immunofluorescence studies with TELV- and TAstV2-specific
antisera indicated a close antigenic relationship between these
viruses. TELV RNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase
chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures with oligonucleotide primers
specific for TAstV2 polymerase gene (open reading frame [ORF] 1b)
and capsid protein gene (ORF 2). Subsequent sequence analyses of
these TELV-derived RT-PCR products indicated a high degree of
similarity with polymerase gene (98.8%) and capsid gene (96.9%) of
TAstV2. These studies definitively identify TELV (North Carolina,
1988 isolate) as TAstV2.
Despins, J.L., Axtell, R.C., Rives, D.V., Guy, J.S., Ficken, M.D.
(1994). Transmission of enteric pathogens of turkeys by darkling
beetle larva (Alphitobius diaperinus). J. Appl. Poultry
Res. 3: 61-65.
Guy, J.S. and Barnes, H.J. (1991). Partial characterization of a
turkey enterovirus-like virus. Avian Dis. 35:197-203.
Guy, J.S., Miles, A.M., Smith, L., Fuller, F.J. and Schultz-Cherry,
S. (2004). Antigenic and genomic characterization of turkey
enterovirus-like virus (North Carolina, 1988 isolate):
identification of the virus as turkey astrovirus 2. Avian Diseases